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Edward Glaeser Education. (2011) Edward Glaeser ('Triumph of the City How Our Greatest Invention Makes Us Richer, Smarter...') New.

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TOPIC FREQUENCY

New York 16, Chicago 8, America 6, Us 6, The City 3, New York City 3, Ireland 3, United States 3, David Lynch 2, Henry David Thoreau 2, City 2, U.s. 2, Greenwich 2, Daley 1, Henry Ford Dietrich 1, Hamilton 1, Huckabee 1, Michael Milken 1, Urbanism 1, Marvell 1,
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  CSPAN    Book TV    Edward Glaeser  Education.  (2011) Edward Glaeser ('Triumph  
   of the City How Our Greatest Invention Makes Us Richer,...  

    March 13, 2011
    8:00 - 9:00pm EDT  

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the more that we expect for the hourly news cycle turnaround there is bound to be more slippage in the search for truth - when it comes to where the candidates stand. >> we have time for one more question? i think we can get in one more question. sorry that last one will have to be of record. ..
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>> how is the electoral college scared of the internet? >> i am not too sure about the latter part but for some people a change in technology and somebody's studying its knowing how to map out a campaign we have been doing a good job with the book. 2012 is another ball of wax. i guess the older you get the more entrenched and comfortable our understanding seems but four other people, it will be a world of new opportunity so with each election
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cycle, one person's anxiety is another person's play box to try something new. so maybe people who are not used to the media are coming into the process, there are certainly opportunities for them. >> that will bring things to a close. the comment is buckle up america we're not going back to a gentler time but where we go, politics make us in a call which has a new platform to stand on and our commitment to civil discourse that we can make an impact if i think our panelists for being here and all of you for being here as well. [applause] the books will be available for citing in assigning area.
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just west of the student union. thank you very much. >> that concludes our coverage of the 2011 tucson of books. we have them live all weekend if you have missed any of the events that coverage will air tonight starting at 1:00 a.m. eastern.
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[no audio] [no audio] as it did to ship them across the atlantic. it was enormously difficult to access the wealth. there was a great transportation network, chicago, which was formed starting off on the illinois and michigan can now had a great wateree park
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rails only supplemented that transportation network every city and the major waterway for the river mead says c. where it meets the mississippi river. europe three gate great interest --
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so if you go back as city of people set of connections a huge amount of and then trade has great business taking care of the engine on the ships going on the great
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lakes. they perform a critical role educating those who work with engines like henry ford dietrich in the 1900 s. [no audio] automotive genius with every streetcar all the zero inventing and innovating and stealing each other's ideas dollar desperately trying to figure out the new thing. so trying to produce the mass-produced automobile. there would be several tragedies i will talk about is the way they figure out
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so one way they could do mass producing, they create great factories better vertically integrated 71 level this is great it is productive at but nothing could be more than the four river plant a great wall around that area little connections the people and for a while it is wildly productive when the economic changes and transportation costs fall, that could move to lower cost areas like the right to work states and automobile productions across the globe and the conditions change, and it did not have the culture of entreprenuership it did not have the skills that were so intrinsic to urban renewal. the second tragedy is the way the government responded was exactly the opposite of
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what it needed. the government responded and it shares a lot of blame to me there ready to subsidize new structures as urban renewal and spending on transportation creating investments like that the trait monorail, the people mover. the problem is a city like to try to already has an abundance of infrastructure relative to people. the last thing they need is more structure in a place like the jury and the politicians for their ready to build villages because it looks great and has a shiny new building then you could declare cleveland tata a comeback city but that does not address the problem of the most important thing to make sure children who are growing up have the skills they need to compete in the global economy and have something that is a birthright is the safety of the street. a people mover moves but we did not have the skills of
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the entrepreneurs to enable them to come back. new york did come back and it came back not because of a government that the program there are many reasons for this. and this culture of entreprenuership coming out of the garment industry that was a haven for people who were getting to start. i tell the story in the book of the greatest skyscraper builder before he famously declared 1930 would be a great building year and did not turn out so well. [laughter] but until that point* he actually had a tremendous career. another entrepreneur who started off. the story of the new york comeback is tied to a chain of innovation so they have always permitted dead chains
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from one a smart idea to another and think about renaissance mars where they figure out how they pass it along who puts it in the low release and passes to his friend and marvelous pictures who passes along again who passes it along again and so on the and so forth one smart idea on top of another. my own view of the chain of innovation of finance it starts with people who are at the university of chicago like milton friedman figuring out how to think mathematically between risk. some of that gets passed and some people are carried increasingly sophisticated ability to think of the risk return trade-off. this intellectual apparatus has been used by the young michael milken to sell
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high-yield debt to enable investors with more quantitative to recognize here's security offers the rest. that enabled henry to structure a leverage buyout. and it makes possible the securitization and of course, the mailgram is a great example and bloomberg himself as part of the chain himself and and is so important because one of which is the day deter will is one part of the change -- jane but he is also a great example house cities create cross industry fertilization. how the combination of different industries in a place like new york has the largest and most successful entrepreneurial innovation. bloomberg comes out of finance but he is an entrepreneur competing with
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the guise of silicon valley and the terminal. but yet he knows how to compete and outdo them because he knows and has run the trading floor and had knowledge he gained in the city that no silicon valley engineer could possibly know. he is able to make the leap. the other reason i like to bring up bloomberg is the picture in the book that i am very fond of is the bullpen. in the city hall that is borrowed from the bullpen and before that borrowed from the salomon brothers trading floor. those illustrate a city that's within normal times with marvell industries would sit behind a giant oak doors and have all the privacy they could have but yet to they don't and used to be right on top of each other because an industry where knowledge matters more
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, that basically is house cities succeed how new york to back with the knowledge that was more valuable than space and there is an industry just knowing a little bit more is more valuable for more important. that is why there is a very strong tendency of idea oriented industries to be urban resident -- renaissance like computers and talk about leveraging the urban ability to connect our people who learn from one another. it is often suggested they will make that obsolete but i don't think that is true. there's something so fundamental that it makes contact so valuable. we have evolved over millions of years to have a rich set of tools to communicate. anybody knows the hard part is not teaching our knowing the information you want to proclaim but knowing whether or not your audience gets it
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and your ideas get through. human beings have all these great used to signal comprehension or confusion and that is a critical part of transmitting complicated ideas and they make it ever more complicated and increase the cost of screwing up not communicating properly that is why it is so valuable. cities are also important because of things learned that they would never learn in a trading session. things they had no idea about. looking at productivity come it is about the revival of cities of pleasure as well as others if you go back to the 1970's it was not clear it would not happen you had to have combat pay to let them live in new york. [laughter] now they are willing to accept a lower real wage just to have the fun of
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living in the city. that did not happen by accident. the creation of livable cities all are vast undertakings and we're still not done with developing in the world and these of the great challenges that lie ahead. if you go back to 1900 comment today life expectancy is two years longer. i am not sure we fully understand that. some play a major role but for younger new route -- new yorkers it is clear why the death rates are lower. just like taking the subway after a few drinks is a lot less dangerous and lower rates of suicide. wallet new yorkers not likely to say they are happy but they ought do not often themselves at the same rate of low density areas. [laughter] but that required investment
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and the local governmengovernmen ts at the start of the 20th century were spending on at -- as much on water except for the army and the post office. while clean water required an engineering solution, other problems do not require engineering so it was a major challenge. that to also required serious government intervention handling that was difficult. traffic congestion is a problem that is with us and in some sense i like to describe it new york is running a soviet-style transport system. by that, in the old soviet union, groceries were vastly underpriced and given away at groceries. that is the near city traffic jam a long line that you don't get the goods because you sit there and
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wait for the guy to turn. the only way i know how to handle this is you have to charge something and that is what the pricing does. what we know from the data is you cannot just build your way out of traffic. there is fundamental law that is said vehicle miles traveled increase with the highways built. if you build it, they will drive. there is only one solution to make people pay for the social cost of their action. the success of cities means it creates a downside that if you do not allow supply to keep up with demand, the city's become under godly and an affordable and that is one of the challenges new york faces that cities like chicago which is very friendly toward construction makes it possible without a lot of means to live in chicago.
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new york under the bloomberg administration moving productively but if you look at the broad path, just as prices were rising, the city was making it more difficult to build with the increasing swath of preservation. 15% of the land area were part of the preservation district. it is not as i revere our architectural legacy, the nondescript post for needs to be preserved. [laughter] i draw a lot of wisdom and understanding the magic but got this wrong but along of jacobs was wandering around observing things and observing old buildings are cheap and new were expensive and the letter was to keep them affordable was make
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sure you keep the old building and not let anybody build on top of them. that is not how supply and demand works. would be restrict building for whatever reason prices will go through the roof and that is what we see in new york and in the home neighborhood of greenwich village. when she lived there it was affordable to middle and come families like herself. now who can afford a town house in greenwich village today? preservation, that helped make it have been very difficult for the free market it is a great irony that progressive states that allegedly care so much those that do not a bad job although never advancing for low-cost housing that get it does a great job of it by unleashing the builder. the ability of relatively
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unfettered construction to deliver the space people need is an important lesson i try to get across in the book. there are many reasons why cities and should be relatively unleashed but one reason i emphasize in the book which is the greeness of cities. i want to leave in with the story of a friend did some negative stage fishing will and there's not much rain release of all they were cooking a charter. then the wind flicked the flames to the grass and a fire started which grew nine negative dried timber and ranching larger and larger and the inferno in super bowl than 300 acres was burned.
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during this man's own time castigated as an enemy of the entire may he was accused in 1844 and it is hard to think of any boston merchant who did as much damage to the environment as this young man. but of course, today is the same as henry david thoreau. there is a lesson that it also makes sense to stay away from it to. also when i started acquiring small children about five years ago. [laughter] you can tell i am an economist. [laughter] i also moved to the woods not that far and started to do more damage to the environment and the road -- henry david thoreau. i am taking no stand on the science of global warming in this book by the the worry about global warming or the price of gas at the pump
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that living again compact urban spaces even if holding nevada family constant. one fact is those who live in single-family attached houses -- detached houses it uses 88% or energy and an apartment and a lot of it has to do with smaller housing units and less driving. if you like green space, lifted new york. -- lived in new york it was not trying to urge people to live in an area. the point* of the book is america has i die eight -- idealize the style of living that involves some birds and does not include living in urban apartments
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and we have a terrible policy that i badly want to be part of a national dialogue just apart from the issue themselves from disruption the three policies the most obvious and problematic are the home and interest deduction endeavors structure spending. first, the deduction of lowered is clearly problematic over the last 10 years we've bribe americans to leverage themselves during the years of the housing market encouraging to buy bigger houses and move away from urban apartments come 85% houses are unoccupied and multifamily units are rented. renting out an apartment and with the house of the inevitable depreciation they depreciate about 1% per year and if you put a lot of owners under one year you
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have of the chaos of the new york city co-op. [laughter] so when you subsidize owning a push people away from the dense urban living transportation infrastructure as well i am not surprised a deeply disappointed by a the infrastructure with the recent budget. this when filtered by the senate is anti-urban. during the stimulus the structure spending per capita was twice as high as in the least dense state and the most of those have more senators relative to people. there is very little reason why the government should be in the business. america one longer compete shipping in resources but it is slightly cheaper we will compete by what is in our mind and by the idea of the operation and entreprenuership that happens naturally i will emphasize that so many people leave cities for the
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schools and away restructured our schools if you took the new york restaurants currently one of the great cloris of the city if not to of all civilization ever. [laughter] all of the private innovation and entering, closing, it turned out that tied german fusion did not work. [laughter] instead of that you had a single food superintendent that delivered food and a city canteen it would be an awful place to eat but yet that is what we have done with the schools. instead of allowing private company it -- competition to come up with new ideas, we turn that off. it is enormously hard for anyone to affect change from the top down. have enormous admiration for joel klein and he tried very, very hard to put more competition and innovation
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in to the school districts but the slow movement shows how heavy a lift a physicist we have hopeful with the charter schools to improve the test scores but we are unlikely to have better schools and to have improvements out harnessing the competition and entreprenuership and once you do that there's no reason why america cannot have the best schools of the world but unlikely to happen with a purely public monopoly. i will and there and say how much i am grateful for your attention and how much i look forward to learning from you in net confines of the dense urban environment. thank you very much. [applause] >> please wait for the microphone.
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>> the cities are attracted and dark counter intuitive intuitive, but the question is are the cities attracted to people who are poor? david brooks wrote a series of monthly columns 10 years ago when he talked about how happy people were in rural areas because there was less and come and inequality let alone the conservative tradition of rural moral virtue in community lending. could you address those? and also what do you think about urbanism in the third-world where the population is dominant? >> two questions are connected. the new york issue it is not
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an issue lack of policy it has a high poverty rate has says all of america. the preponderance of poor people is even more evident from by that party is seen as a suburb failure but in fact, it is a sign of urban success because they are full of people they attract poor people with their prominence of economic opportunity and in the case of the u.s. the ability to get around without a car for every adult. some of that is my research on and public transportation and the fact that many build a new subway stop party rates go up near the stock. does that make people pour? it is impoverishing the people? of course, not. those are attracting poor people who do not have a car
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for every adult who needs to get around. in the developing world come this city's provided more important party and ghandi talked about the importance of the future is in the villages. it is in the city's the way they connect with the outside world and it is unquestionably true that life is enormously difficult that none of us would want to live for a day little-known many years but there are still reasons why people come there. it still beats the end deprivation in brazil and beats living in a world where time seems to stand still and cities provide that promise. does not mean that they do not create challenges that they are close enough to exchange ideas we could affect each other and if we
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are close enough to sell you a newspaper i am close enough to robbie that is the point* where cities require well structured government to acquire a government that handles congestion, crime, and the tragedy is a government policies have no business regulating and mumbai has suffered terribly and it has kept the city far too low and expense of at the same time they have failed to provide the basics of urban life. when i wandered around a place like that you are struck by the enormous power of entreprenuership there is one corner a couple of guys you feel your on back on it lower east side and then these beautiful little pots being painted and then there is a bunch of people
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recycling old plastic. but the other theme this seemed perfectly reason what the same time you see a child defecating in the street. this is the great challenge that the public sector is not doing what it has to do at the same time with far too much action. i certainly push back on the notion there is enough to like but not in the developing world but having cities that require management a good but limited public-sector that knows its job. >> the central thesis seems very similar to a colleague of yours at harvard in the article he wrote in 1990 and it seems he has spoke about industries and clusters and innovation and competition and very similar and i wonder if you have any areas
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where you parked company with michael? >> we both started and questionably we were influenced by his work one of the facts that came out was the enormous correlation between the establishment size of urban success. i think seeing the virtues of the idea flows saying alfred marshall was high that is not something that separates us. but i think i am less optimistic about his vision for competitiveness in the inner city and there was probably too much of an emphasis on the advantage relative to think of more game changing things to radically increase human capital in these areas.
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that is fundamental not trying to figure out low-volume added services with inner-city areas of how to provide the skills in connection to allow those areas to grow. then 80% of the book is saying is unrelated to michael porter score interest but certainly i share his enthusiasm and the value of connecting. >> the cover of your book has a picture of chicago? >> and stretched out. [laughter] and anybody who has been there lately know it looks amazing it is clean and parks downtown and skyscrapers than the census said they lost 200,000 people in the last 10 years which is more than they were expecting at the same time the ex urban counties away
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from chicago with fastest-growing in the country. is that a problem? what did they do they are not already doing? why did they see these results? >> it is a very successful city and chicago has a lot of things of -- in common other rough cities when i came to the city in 1988, that city seemed very much to be on the hinge of history like it could very well go to cleveland or detroit rather than the path that it is on it is it against trends it is not predict growth and the january temperature and the chicago centers are tough. and also fights against the general mood it is a very decentralize city and it is
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at issue with the city prepare that being said you don't want to judge a city purely by population numbers and there are some areas that are losing population larger families been replaced by smaller families and that is most evidence where you have a huge population loss because of that but often the increasingly wealthy population means yet more people occupying the same space as the population numbers can go down by have a lot of admiration for what mayor daley has done and has been left as a very successful city and it is a mistake to look at the population numbers as being the primary gauge the success look at the crime
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rate of the area both of which has shown tremendous progress under his leadership. >> looking at a fraction of national output to exceed the fraction and although for a few nuances normally we measure our plants for example, of a restaurant meal cost $200 in manhattan that is the value that is created and there is a number of ways of matter of opinion and with national gdp there is the deflator that did is applied. and people could argue about the level of the city and if a new york city a cost $200 this summer and kansas it is $50. that is a matter of opinion.
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that is another example dominated by the financial industry people can i do if that produces much value as people claim? you consider those issues associated with the fact? >> first of all, look at the relationship between gdp per capita and metropolitan area. it is not as if new york and everything else is less. if you divorce yourself from a locally domestically traded to the industry that you look at export-oriented industries you seem a strong positive relationship a per capita and per employee out what. it is certainly true that there is rarely a free lunch in a city choice as anything else. the fact there are higher
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prices in new york is the price of living in a productive and fun place. not as if new york gives people more productivity without charging people for them. that is the nature of space and the nature of cities but if firms were not more productive, they would not stick around to the higher cost of being and we have decades of literature and all of which come down with strong positive benefits from other industries in various ways. >> despite joe clients left is there an improvement in
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other cities? >> i am hopeful and optimistic and most of one places in new york were there is so much talent pushing on various margins. new york, if you look at the problems there are two things that make it possible for that to happen and is much more difficult than other cities one of which is philanthropic energy that is very special that makes things like that work as such i am strongly in favor of it. [laughter] but the other thing is you can get great teachers. people who are there and willing to work which be harder in a city with less richness of human capital. i continue to me quite optimistic. you could have a bad turn in terms of who is the next mayor and the things that
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could go wrong but basically the energy of new yorkers are relatively good going forward. i am less optimistic that they can create change in this area. of the good news is you start on such a low base and education the centers of deprivation that anything has the possibility of doing good. but also with meaningful political change but remember part of the job of being an economist, never plans on being confirmed for any political job as i am supposed to say things that are impossible prior limit myself to saying this for tomorrow i am not the best judge of what has been politically feasible.
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>> a television reporter bid again too new york. >> you have the voice for its. [laughter] >> is on one of a great waterways, but the great problem they face is the intellectual capital how do we bring that back? powdery all conglomerates' around? >> one of the glories of the united states, not as if i believe everybody should believe in the new york city skyscraper and there is a lot to like and but that being said, those towns that once existed because of transportation cost focusing a few large manufacturing industries that lost their way these cities are facing
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enormous challenges. in the long run the education is the best those that are educated and having been doing much better there is no variable that better projects which to share the population across metropolitan areas as a share with a college degree increases by 10% wages go up by 8% holding there on education constant. this is the enormous value it is also true in a downturn education is very protective of metropolitan areas with a negative association between unemployment and the skills. more of a connection you just predict 5% of college graduates are unemployed and education certainly is the central thing and not investing in infrastructure. thinking about what else you
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could do to limit regulation and cheap quality of life, the best economic development strategy at the urban level is to attract and train smart people then get out of their way. focus on people to make sure you have got rid of those things that get in the way of private entrepreneurship. related to this chicago question that would not happen and should not be objective it dropped by a comedy thousand then it went to degrade the jobs in charlotte. just once i want to hear a city mayor focused on the people of the fundamental responsibility rather than chasing a population poll. unfortunately it is not a silver bullet but we can do better than that.
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[applause] >> rear at the cpac talking to amanda from sentinel. what is coming out? >> we just cannot was secretary rumsfeld book this week we are very, very excited about. and at the end of the month, we have governor huckabee next book coming out the end of theory and in march we have founder's day a very popular author is standing here right with me at the booth.
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>> can you tell me about your latest book? >> with founder's day i look at tennis shoes that seem to be at the top of the news today from debt to government bailouts to guns to religion and it went back through the document not what they said what they had written and done and they have a lot to tell us. some of these things are such new problems, what could they possibly learn? but they have dealt with all of these things but there is financial panic that hamilton dealt with and did not bailout and the banks. >> host: where there any surprises in your research or things you have not seen before? >> guest: absolutely as a conservative, i am dead toward private school but what i found is all founders were in favor of public schools. but was important what they thought should be taught was
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patriotic history, math and religion. >> any other revelations? >> there is a chapter about guns and gun ownership and a couple of the recent supreme court done under ship was meant to be an individual rights not just for personal defense but so the people collectively could be as well armed as the government in case they ever had to get rid of the government. >> host: tell us about your next project. is there one in the works? >> yes. huge project i take on the whole world 1898 through the present. >> host: what led you to take on such and enormous task? >> it is a stairstep up from smaller segments of american history that i do a history of the united states and thought somebody needs to
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look at the history of the world in terms of how a patriotic american and would see things but also much of history is written by europeans who don't that high of the few and said we should have something written about the world. >> thank you for your time >> host: david lynch when did a lot of the irish ran out? >> two years ago and the midst of the global financial crisis which
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exposed is that irish economic social model and-- that brought great changeover a quarter-century. my story starts 1984 for four stagnant troubled and those that have a cultural vibrancy it never happened before and then the first time in generations and it was a fatalistic irish men would expect is badly off the rails ending up in a credit bubble avon larger than the one we had in the united states and now faces difficult choices. >> how did ireland enterprise and '80s and '90s? >> and the late 80's they followed a multi part strategy with public financing is strained out that allow interest rates to come down and attract a lot of investment from the u.s.
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companies like intel, citigroup gateway and microsoft corporation into the country. they negotiated agreements between the nine governments and business community to make investments predictable comedy prior the currency and again 1992 and it all ended up with the mayor call that was done to the cal tech tie their. after years of no growth at all, ireland was a backwater almost a third world country in the 1980's then it started to kick over growing at 10% per year, year after year to the flights where by the year 2000, for the first time in modern history the irish on a per-capita basis were richer then the former colonial masters in britain. >> host: where does the book and? >> about four or five months ago. it comes full circle through
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the best times ireland has ever had and it brings the story up to date and end spur marinara with the nationalization of the rogue bank anglo irish bank that was responsible was the taxpayers are getting stuck with and a hopeful now that the irish had demonstrated resiliency over the century will find a way to find a way. >> when dey luck ran out and the struggle to rise again, author david lynch
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>> host: for the first book, your book is called the obama's, the 11th 11th -- untold story of the african family. when we think of obama, we think of a multi-cultural man, someone of mixed-race common heritage descending from a white mother and african father.
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in some sense we may expect your booktv the untold story of an american family but an african family. why you choose to focus on this side of the family heritage and what is the significance? >> guest: when the american people elect a president they also elect the leader of the free world. you only have to see what is happening this weekend in cairo to know the decisions made now in the white house will affect the lives of millions of egyptians. and i sometimes think the american people did not fully appreciate how big a deal is when a new american president has a very powerful influential position over the world. that is the first thing that he is an important man to everybody but with barack obama he is fundamentally different from any previous president for obvious reasons and came up very
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quickly from relative obscurity and the podium once said give me let the generals and they had their lucky candidate and he made it to the white house. and he is half black and have flights that made him very different. >> host: one of the things that seems very powerful and interesting about obama it is that there is something about him is offshore as off the shores of america when you look at previous presidents clinton or carter or reagan they are recognizable american and approve lowered disapprove you can recognize them right away. his maternal side was from kansas, seattle, why even she comes up as the bohemian american and background but if you focus on the father's side and trace it far back, i want to read the